Contributor(s): Chelsea Hall, Ben Deitle (see his bio sketch linked below).
|TBRC ID||Person RID: P3312|
|Wylie name||ma gcig labs kyi sgron ma|
|Name etymology||Ma gcig = Great Mother, labs = family name, sgron ma = lamp or light; altogether = Great Mother, Light of Labs region|
|Naming history||Vajradakini, Great Timeless Wisdom, Vajra Tamer of Devils, Queen of Vajra Space (Dorje Yingchukma)|
|Person type||religious: nun/yogini|
|Summary (1 paragraph)||(see below)|
|Longer description||(see below)|
|Birth date (Tibetan)||?|
|Birth date (international)||1055 (although Martin disputes the veracity of such firm dates)|
|Birth place (Tibetan)||tso mer village, tam shod region, ei gang ba of labs chi|
|Death date (Tibetan)||?|
|Death date (international)||1153|
|Spheres of activity||la stod, zangs ri, chi pug|
|Sect||Mahamudra - Chö|
|References (reference, page/line, passage)||Blue Annals R 983 - R 984|
In her 95 years Machik is said to have "filled the country of Tibet with the hidden precepts of Chö (gcod)" (Blue Annals, R 984). This practice is sometimes spoken of as its own sect but has been incorporated into many of the major monastic lineages, including that of Ganden. The practice of Chö involves visualization of offering the body to demons and ghosts, mostly in haunted areas. The practices of Tümmo (gtum mo), or internal heat yoga, and Phowa ('pho ba) or transference of consciousness are central to the practice of Chö. It has even been suggested that the practice of Chö influenced the adoption of the practice of sky-burial because of its associations with cemetaries and corpses, not to mention the ritual implements and the action of severing.
Machik Labdrön is perhaps the most famous female saint in Tibetan Buddhism. Rather than being known as such because of acting as a consort, as most women in Tibet who are recorded in history are remembered for, she is further distinguished by the body of teachings known as Chö that are traced back to India. She also originated a number of practices, teachings, and explanations that have been extremely important to many lineages besides the Chö teachings. It is not clear, historically, whether she developed these teachings herself (through visions of Tara) or whether they are a hybrid (Indian) product of her teacher's instructions and her own experience. Regardless, it is believed that the melodies chanted during Chö rituals stem from the compositions of Machik herself and were passed down through the lineage of teachers to the present times. Machik Labdrön was a professional reciter of the collection of Prajñaparamita sutras for four years beginning at age 16 for Lama Drapa, having bested his former reciter in a competition. It was at this time that she met her two major teachers, Dampa Sangyé and Sönam Drakpa. Sönam Drakpa instructed her in the difference between understanding the meaning and internalizing the meaning through experience, which was to become a central theme in her system of philosophy. She meditated and gained the internal realization of the meaning and completely cut through the attachment to ego. She wandered as a yogini until she was 20 years old, journeying from her relatives' land to the region where she taught, Yoru Dratang. She requested initiation from Lama Drapa, who denied that he could perform it and instructed her to ask Sönam Drakpa instead. He initiated (ngo sprad) her into the four empowerments of the sutra tradition and the empowerment of Mahamaya from the lineage of Dampa Sangyé as well as "Opening the Door to the Sky." During her initiation she flew through the wall to encounter some naga-s (demons), whom she subdued by casting out her body as food, Then the demons pledged to protect her teachings. Further, she was initiated by the five Mahamayas, the five Trömas, Cakrasamvara and a host of dakinis, the Great Mother, and finally Tara gave her the one hundred empowerments of the Tantra of the Heart's Essence that Clears Away the Darkness of Ignorance, which is one of the original Chö texts.
The account of her rebirths is interesting, because although it emphasizes her enlightenment in female form, it follows with an account of her previous lives as a male, which are apparently more important to the later traditions that follow from her lineage. However, it is also notable that this Indian man has chosen to be born as a woman in order to teach the Prajnaparamita, perhaps because of its associations with the Great Mother. This is also intended to justify the supposedly Indic origins of the practice of Chö, as these previous incarnations' activities were said to take place in India. Even though the tradition looks to her previous male incarnations for support, her identification with the female goddesses Prajñaparamita, Dakini Sukhasiddhi, and Tara leads one to believe that they found this pedigree highly validating and were not attempting to efface her feminine identity entirely. However, one should note that the mere figure of a woman does not seem to be sufficient, given her identification with previous male incarnations and otherworldly goddesses.
Several events in her life can be taken as representative accounts of the treatment of powerful women at this time, revealed through the reactions of society. She was castigated for renouncing her monastic vows, marrying and having children. Although it was common enough for monks to renounce their vows in favor of the householder life or even temporarily for the sake of certain ritual performances, apparently it was socially perceived as different for a nun to renounce and adopt lay practices. However, it is unclear from the account of her life in her "Complete Explanation" that she ever took monastic vows, although she took the lay vows. Her relationship with Töpa Bhadra was mediated by several factors, including the encouragement of her teachers that she practice with him in order to benefit sentient beings, due to their karmic connection. In fact, in one instance she was encouraged by Sönam Lama in her relationship with Töpa Bhadra with the words, "You are not a nun, and Bhadraya is not a bad person, so there is no problem. Your family lineage will increase. You should stay with Bhadraya and it will create the karma and interdependent connections to bring vast benefit to sentient beings for a very long time. In fact, last night I had an excellent dream about it" (Harding, 80). There were also many times when deities such as Tara appeared to her, advising her that she should perform the union of means and wisdom with Töpa Bhadra. In the retelling of their first encounter, much is glamorized and given new symbolic meaning. Their first union generated such incredible heat and bliss that everyone in the house thought that it was on fire, and upon examination of the source of the conflagration it was discovered that the two had dissolved into rainbow light surrounding a red and a white moon, symbolic of the union of male and female as method and wisdom. After that night, Machik faced criticism for being "seduced" but is repeatedly told by her teachers that their union is blessed and not subject to such judgments. She composed the following verse in response to her critics:
"Vulgar prophecies are the devils' deceptions.
Sexual friendship is to befriend the devil of adverse circumstance.
Even the patroness comes in chased by the demon of shame.
How can this possibly help sentient beings?"
"People used to abuse her by calling her a 'nun who had violated her vows' (‘jo mo bka logma) ." (Blue Annals, R 984) She was also harshly criticized for leaving an initiation too early. However, the teacher came to her defense, having understood that she had obtained the yogic insight and thereby obviated the need to complete the ritual. All of these incidents and the advice of her teachers coalesce to form significant rationalizations for her actions, which were evidently counter to certain social norms. While it is not clear whether she was ever a nun, or whether she therefore truly broke her vows, it is clear that her own tradition emphasizes the sanctioned nature of this union, while outsiders (as represented by the quotations from the Blue Annals) preferred to emphasize her apparent disregard for tradition by accusing her of breaking nuns' vows and not respecting the teacher by leaving an initiation. It seems clear, too, that she was viewed with such a measure of cynosure precisely because of the fact that she was a powerful woman and she could disregard these rules.